It has no official status in the Basque Country of France where many people also speak French. There are five different locational cases and over thirty postpositions, also inflected with these cases, that allow fine and detailed descriptions of space. with compound verbs (light-verb constructions), e.g. Basque is a language without known surviving relatives spoken by some 700,000 people in the Basque Country (Araba, Biscay, Gipuzkoa and Navarrein northeastern S pain, and In ergative-absolutive languages, the absolutive is the grammatical case used to mark both the subject of an intransitive verb and the object of a transitive verb. Nominative. Grammatical cases … However, the numerals may co-occur with a determiner. Yes-no questions either take the same form as the corresponding statement, or incorporate a question marker. In some varieties or styles of Basque, e.g. Other ways of comparing quality or manner, in both Basque and English, involve using a separate word, such as hain handi 'so big'. Within a verb phrase, the periphrastic comes first, and then the auxiliary. Nevertheless, it cannot be inferred that the Ancient Greeks really knew what grammatical cases were. For syntactic cases, the picture is more complex. English puts the word than in front of the standard. Basque is sometimes called an SOV (i.e. Hezurrak jaten dituzte txakurrek, roughly 'They eat bones, dogs'; so also Ez dakit, nik 'I don't know', where nik is no doubt a topic of sorts since if it weren't there would be no need to mention it at all (unmarked: Ez dakit). Univ ersity of the Basque Country. In ordinary colloquial usage many speakers do not allow this, but some allow other such "inversions", e.g. Plurality and case are marked by enclitics at the end of the nominal phrase. Nouns are likewise stuffed with information: Basque has 12 nouns cases, with many suffixes and prefixes added to change meaning. 'She has money' (where the point of the utterance is not to tell us what she has, but whether or not she has it). '[dog.PLURAL.ARTICLE.ERGATIVE bone.PLURAL.ARTICLE eat.IMPERFECT AUXILIARY], 'Dogs eat bones,' 'Bones are eaten by dogs,' 'It is dogs who eat bones. It also has a different writing system--both German and English use the Latin script whereas Russian uses Cyrillic. It has often been noted that in traditional usage (but less so among modern speakers), there is often an explicit correlation between the three degrees of proximity in the demonstrative forms and the grammatical persons, such that hau is made to correspond to ni, hori to hi/zu and so on. Occasionally, such suffixes may be added to other word forms: from gora 'up' (irregular allative of the relational goi-, hence literally 'to above') can be formed gorago (for gora + -ago), 'more up', i.e. 1. The fourth set is local case suffixes (etymologically the primary forms) incorporated into the place adverbs, which gives these following (partly irregular) forms: Many other adverbs may be adjectivalised with -ko. ', 'Donostia is the prettiest city in the Basque Country. Basque speakers around the world: 750,000 native speakers Writing system: Latin ... For one, Russian has six grammatical cases whereas German only has four. In choice questions, 'or' is either ala or edo, although the former is often taught as more correct. The subject of the transitive verb (that is, the agent) is marked differently, with the ergative case (shown by the suffix -k). This rule is so important in Basque that, even in grammatical descriptions of Basque in other languages, the Basque word for "focus", galdegai, is used. The locative case (abbreviated ) is a grammatical case which indicates a location. ‘cases’, they are really referring to a rather more general notion of ‘canonical grammatical function markers on dependents’. In additional to the grammatical case, there may be a number of different suffixes to the word. The negative-polar article, often called the partitive suffix, does not combine with case suffixes. The question marker al is not used pan-dialectally. University of the Basque Country aingeru@ehu.es Abstract Some basic morphological mles are also presented, but only a few lexical items. "Finnish Grammar - General Local Cases". The French Basque Country, or Northern Basque Country (Basque: Iparralde (lit. They follow the noun quantified: liburu gehiago 'more books', gatz gehiegi 'too much salt', and hainbeste 'so much, so many', which precedes the noun: hainbeste diru 'so much money'. This rule is so important in Basque that, even in grammatical descriptions of Basque in other languages, the Basque word for "focus", galdegai, is used. Grammatical cases. A topic may be backgrounded (although arguably still remaining a topic) by placement at the end of a sentence rather than at the beginning, e.g. University of the Basque Country aingeru@ehu.es Abstract This paper presents three successful tech-niques to translate prepositions heading verbal complements by means of rich lin-guistic information, in the context of a All of them can also be used adverbially (comparing the extent to which something occurs or is the case): Ez pentsatu hainbeste! When glossing examples below, these elements are referred to collectively as ART. They are so called because they follow the word or phrase whose relation they express (compare prepositions, which precede a word or phrase, but do not exist in Basque). ‘cases’, they are really referring to a rather more general notion of ‘canonical grammatical function markers on dependents’. The brain did not function in the same way with Basque-Spanish bilingual speakers in the two cases. in poetic diction, one may achieve more emphatic focus (even on an object) by inverting the usual verb-auxiliary order: Txakurrek hezurrak dituzte jaten. (it)], '(As for) him, he knows,' 'He knows, (he does).'. While the potential to generate and understand (in a reasonable context) such complex forms is built into Basque grammar and perfectly intelligible to speakers, in practice, the use of such very complex constructions is not uncommon. The articles -a, -ak, -ok, -(r)ik, demonstratives hau, hori, hura and some of the quantifiers follow the noun they determine or quantify. These have only three forms total, called aspects: perfect (various suffixes), habitual[9] (suffix -t[z]en) and future/potential (suffix. grammatical resources for expressing space. That is worse than total ignorance. Such nominalised adjectival forms may further take case suffixes of their own: haurrentzakoarekin 'with the one for children' [child-for.PLURAL.ART-ko-with.ART], euskarazkoentzat 'for the ones in Basque' [Basque-INSTRUMENTAL-ko-for.PLURAL.ART], etc. Hualde, José Ignacio & Ortiz de Urbina, Jon, eds. There is a strong tendency for other sentence constituents to follow a negated finite verb, except when topicalised. To place a compound verb form (or its affirmation) in focus, it may be enough to place the main sentence stress (which normally goes on the focused item) on the first component of the verbal compound expression. An English compound preposition is on top of, of being comparable to the case taken by a Basque noun preceding a postposition (in this case it would be the genitive) and on is like the case suffix (inessive, in this case) taken by the postposition (to which top corresponds). nor 'who? (2003). The possessed noun phrase retains the same determination and quantification features described above for noun phrases generally. ', zenbat diru 'how much money? These can be put in the present and past tenses in the indicative and subjunctive moods, in three tenses in the conditional and potential moods, and in one tense in the imperative. In each paradigm, each constituent noun can take on any of eight persons, five singular and three plural, with the exception of nor-nori-nork in which the absolutive can only be third person singular or plural. Besides that, however, Hindi has some challenging differences in terms of grammar, pronunciation and writing. Special words are used to compare quantities (how much or how many of something), such as gehiago 'more', gehien(a) '(the) most', gehiegi 'too much, too many'. As a rule, the local case suffixes given above are not used directly with noun phrases that refer to a person or an animal (called animate noun phrases). Eneko Agirre, Aitziber Atutxa, Gorka Labaka, Mikel Lersundi, Aingeru Mayor, K epa Sarasola. 1. If there is no finite verb in the clause, such as when the participle on its own is used as an imperative or in non-finite subordinate clauses, ez may precede a non-finite verb. This observation is particularly applicable when focus is assigned in accordance with predictable or prototypical patterns, such as when the direct object takes the focus position in a transitive clause, or when the verb is formally focused in an intransitive clause. Although several verbal categories are expressed morphologically, periphrastic tense formations predominate. Grammatical Cases to Basque Eneko Agirre, Aitziber Atutxa, Gorka Labaka, Mikel Lersundi, Aingeru Mayor, Kepa Sarasola IXA Group. Basque has the status of a statutory provincial language in Basque Country of Spain where most speakers of Basque also speak Castilian. Basque (sometimes) divides ergative-absolutive rather than nominative-accusative: in other words, the subject of an intransitive verb looks like the object of a transitive verb. or Hau zer da?, but in both cases the question word zer immediately precedes the verb. are obligatorily focused. Basque word order involves in a very basic way two rules, the "focus rule" and the "topic rule", as follows: 'Dogs eat bones. (Gizon bat etorri da, "a man has come"; gizon bat etorri duk, "a man has come [you are a male close friend]", gizon bat etorri dun, "a man has come [you are a female close friend]"[8]) Notice that this nearly multiplies the number of possible forms by three. There are two question markers: al for straightforward yes-no questions, and ote for tentative questions of any kind (yes-no or not). In western dialects an alternative procedure used to emphasise the placement of focus on the verb is to make this a complement of the verb egin 'do'. Of course there may be other constituents, as long as none of them are focused, e.g. (This draws on a language universal; *"Yesterday the boss presented the committee me" sounds at least odd, if not incorrect.) The most typical Basque postpositions are built on nominal structures: -aren gainean 'on top of' centres on the word gain 'top', but not all postpositional nuclei consist of nouns that can be used independently of the postpositional construction in which they participate. The head noun of a possessed noun phrase may be omitted. I wouldn’t say it is difficult, but original, if your language is an Indoeuropean one. A possibility seemingly not taken into account by the above focus rule, which states that the focused element precedes the verb, is the circumstance wherein the verb itself is in focus. The same forms function both as demonstrative determiners and demonstrative pronouns. For example in line (4) above, it is very rare for a person to speak directly to a banana. An example can be ageshenebinat ("you (pl) had built"). Focused constituents, unless somewhat heavy, will be placed between the two. aingeru@ehu.es. The affirmative use of ba- (not to confused with the homophonous subordinating prefix meaning 'if') is normally used with synthetic finite forms, thus also John badator or Badator John 'John is coming' (as opposed to John dator 'John is coming'), Badu dirua (or in western Basque Badauka dirua) 'She has money'. 1. The nominative case (abbreviated), subjective case, straight case or upright case is one of the grammatical cases of a noun or other part of speech, which generally marks the subject of a verb or the predicate noun or predicate adjective, as opposed to its object or other verb arguments. The interrogative phrase is often placed first, but as in other sentences, topics may be foregrounded through fronting and so precede the wh-expression; such constructions are fairly common in Basque. The structures used in such comparisons in Basque are as follows (the second table shows examples); the word orders shown are the most common and considered basic, but certain variations are also possible. Martin-ek is the agent (transitive subject), so it is marked with the ergative case ending -k (with an epenthetic -e-). In this section are the main exceptions: Personal pronouns and demonstratives display some irregularities in declension. In linguistic morphology, inflection (or inflexion) is a process of word formation, in which a word is modified to express different grammatical categories such as tense, case, voice, aspect, person, number, gender, mood, animacy, and definiteness. or from the lexical or semantic noun type: Personal pronouns differentiate three persons and two numbers. users.jyu.fi. All the other verbs in Basque are called periphrastic, behaving much like a participle would in English. This may be explained by intrinsic qualities of the concepts "subject" and "object". In our study, native Basque speakers participated in an ERP recording while performing a grammatical judgment task on auditory Basque sentences. Attached to a synthetically conjugated finite verb, this has the effect of putting that verb (or its affirmation, if one prefers) in focus, thereby implying that whatever (if anything) precedes the verb is not in focus. For Basque, this would mean that transitive subjects and indirect objects are always 19 See Elordieta (2001) for an overview of the debate on non configurationality in Basque, and for evi- dence against such an analysis. The Basque noun phrase is structured quite differently from those in most Indo-European languages. It's been estimated that at two levels of recursion, a Basque noun may have 458,683 inflected forms (Agirre et al, 1992). The locative case (abbreviated ) is a grammatical case which indicates a location. In Fish is as expensive as meat, meat is the standard, indicated by the second as (compare Fish is as expensive or Fish is so expensive, where no standard is mentioned). A compound verb form (a verb in a compound tense or a compound verb construction) may be clause-initial in cases of verbal focus: Negation is expressed by ez preceding the finite verb form. Yet the restrictions on contexts in which these forms may be used is strong: all participants in the conversation must be friends of the same sex, and not too far apart in age. Nevertheless, it cannot be inferred that the Ancient Greeks really knew what grammatical cases were. The French Basque Country, or Northern Basque Country (Basque: Iparralde (lit. This also triggers main and auxiliary verbal agreement. Some speakers do accept uses of negative-polar words in isolation, with ez implicit. time as the different Basque grammatical patterns are outlined. See the following description of their uses. Some subordinate clauses are exempt from certain rules. ^ This looks silly, of course, but in many languages (Irish, Finnish, Basque, Inuktitut) it’s impossible to speak without it. In linguistic morphology, inflection (or inflexion) is a process of word formation, in which a word is modified to express different grammatical categories such as tense, case, voice, aspect, person, number, gender, mood, animacy, and definiteness. Retrieved 6 March 2015. Modern Basque dialects allow for the conjugation of about fifteen verbs, called synthetic verbs, some only in literary contexts. From handi 'big' is handiago 'bigger', handien(a) '(the) biggest' (there, -a is the article) and handiegi 'too big': Comparative, superlative and excessive adjectives may be used in the same syntactic frames as adjectives in the positive (basic) degree: compare mendi altuak 'high mountains' [mountain high.PLURAL.ART] and mendi altuagoak 'higher mountains' [mountain higher.PLURAL.ART]. There are certain exceptions to the general focus rule: "Heavy" constituents may be placed after an unfocused verb even when they are (pragmatically) focused. This article provides a grammar sketch of Basque grammar. Basque exhibits ergativity at the nominal and verbal levels. A Basque-Chinese translation example will also be demonstrated. hura 'yon (in the distance, not present)', haiek 'yon (in the distance, not present)', bera 'yonder (in the distance, not present)', beraiek 'yonder (in the distance, not present)'. In Basque and various Amazonian and Australian languages, only the phrase-final word (not necessarily the noun) is marked for case. See Negation above concerning the use of negative polarity items; these may occur in yes-no questions. First, Hindi uses an SOV (subject object verb) word order and has new sounds for English speakers, including dhaand hka. Still other dialects lack either interrogative al or interrogative -a. For Tilde we reached accuracy higher than 70% and for Timbl 63%. BASQUE VERBAL MORPHOLOGY: REDEFINING CASES Pablo Albizu University of the Basque Country-Lehia O. Grammatical Cases to Basque. ', 'this/that way, which way? The Basque noun phrase is structured quite differently from those in most Indo-European languages. Grammatical relations in Basque . With superlatives, as in Donostia is the prettiest city in the Basque Country, on the other hand, the Basque Country is not really a standard but a domain or range within which the superlative applies. Contents[show] Place and Time Note: Most cases used for location and motion can be used for time as well. Verbs of Latinate origin in Basque, as well as many other verbs, have a suffix -tu in the perfect, borrowed from the Latin -tus suffix. Hungarian and Basque have an awful lot, too. Japanese and Korean have two types of nominative, the "subject nominative" and the "topic nominative". Therefore, wh-expressions must immediately precede the verb, and none of the verb-focusing constructions are possible (since these would result in moving the focus away from the wh-expression). -Ko (or -go) can be suffixed to a wide range of other words and phrases, many of them adverbial in function, to form adjectival expressions which behave syntactically just as genitive phrases do. Fernando Zúñiga and Beatriz Fernández. Introduction . "What is this?" But these are not all strictly morphological cases: a lot of them are postpositional cases - sticking what in English would be prepositions onto the end of the noun. For instance, Basque doesn’t simply change the end of the verb, it changes the beginning too. Basque noun phrases are followed by a case suffix, which specifies the relation between the noun phrase and its clause (playing roughly the role of prepositions in English). 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